Category: Philosophie this way review model

Philosophie this way review model

A model review, also called a model walkthrough or a model inspection, is a validation technique in which your modeling efforts are examined critically by a group of your peers. The basic idea is that a group of qualified people, often both technical staff and project stakeholdersget together in a room to evaluate a model or document. The purpose of this evaluation is to determine if the models not only fulfill the demands of the user community, but also are of sufficient quality to be easy to develop, maintain, and enhance.

When model reviews are performed properly, they can have a big payoff because they often identify defects early in the project, reducing the cost of fixing them. In fact, in the book Practical Software Metrics for Project Management and Process Improvement Robert Grady reports that project teams taking a serial non-agile approach that 50 to 75 percent of all design errors can be found through technical reviews.

There are different "flavors" of model review. The purpose of a user requirement review is to ensure your requirements accurately reflect the needs and priorities of your user community and to ensure your understanding is sufficient from which to develop software.

Similarly an architecture review focuses on reviewing architectural models and a design review focuses on reviewing design models. As you would expect the reviewers are often technical staff. Regardless of the type of model review, the basic steps are the same.

The steps of a formal review informal reviews will be discussed later are:. The team prepares for review. The artifacts to be reviewed are gathered, organized appropriately, and packaged so they can be presented to the reviewers. The team indicates it is ready for review. The project team must inform the review facilitator often a member of your quality assurance department, if you have one or another project manager when it is ready to have its work reviewed as well as what the team intends to have reviewed.

The review facilitator performs a cursory review. The first thing the review facilitator must do is determine if the project team has produced work that is ready to be reviewed.

The manager will probably discuss the team's work with the team leader and do a quick rundown of what it has produced. The main goal is to ensure the work to be reviewed is good enough to warrant getting a review team together. The review facilitator plans and organizes the review. The review facilitator must schedule a review room, any equipment needed for the review, invite the proper people, and distribute any materials ahead of time that are needed for the review.

This includes an agenda for the review, as well as the artifacts to be reviewed. The review package may also contain supporting artifacts - artifacts the reviewers may need handy to understand the artifacts they are reviewing. Supporting artifacts are not meant to be reviewed; they are only used as supplementary resources.

philosophie this way review model

The review often includes the standards and guidelines your team is following in the package, so the reviewers can understand the development environment of your team. The reviewers review the package prior to the review. This enables the reviewers to become familiar with the material and prepared for the review.

Reviewers should note any defects, issues, or questions before the review takes place. During the review, they should be raising previously noted issues, not reading the material for the first time. The review takes place.In logic and philosophyan argument is a series of statements in a natural languagecalled the premises or premisses both spellings are acceptableintended to determine the degree of truth of another statement, the conclusion. Logic is the study of the forms of reasoning in arguments and the development of standards and criteria to evaluate arguments.

Inductive argumentsby contrast, can have different degrees of logical strength: the stronger or more cogent the argument, the greater the probability that the conclusion is true, the weaker the argument, the lesser that probability.

The Latin root arguere to make bright, enlighten, make known, prove, etc.

philosophie this way review model

Informal arguments as studied in informal logicare presented in ordinary language and are intended for everyday discourse. Formal arguments are studied in formal logic historically called symbolic logicmore commonly referred to as mathematical logic today and are expressed in a formal language.

Informal logic emphasizes the study of argumentation ; formal logic emphasizes implication and inference. Informal arguments are sometimes implicit.

philosophie this way review model

The rational structure — the relationship of claims, premises, warrants, relations of implication, and conclusion — is not always spelled out and immediately visible and must be made explicit by analysis. There are several kinds of arguments in logic, the best-known of which are "deductive" and "inductive.

Each premise and the conclusion are truth bearers or "truth-candidates", each capable of being either true or false but not both. These truth values bear on the terminology used with arguments. A deductive argumentif valid, has a conclusion that is entailed by its premises. The truth of the conclusion is a logical consequence of the premises If the premises are true, the conclusion must be true. It would be self-contradictory to assert the premises and deny the conclusion, because negation of the conclusion is contradictory to the truth of the premises.

Deductive arguments may be either valid or invalid. If an argument is valid, it is a valid deduction, and if its premises are true, the conclusion must be true: a valid argument cannot have true premises and a false conclusion. An argument is formally valid if and only if the denial of the conclusion is incompatible with accepting all the premises.

The validity of an argument depends not on the actual truth or falsity of its premises and conclusion, but on whether the argument has a valid logical form. The validity of an argument is not a guarantee of the truth of its conclusion. A valid argument may have false premises that render it inconclusive: the conclusion of a valid argument with one or more false premises may be true or false.

Logic seeks to discover the forms that make arguments valid. A form of argument is valid if and only if the conclusion is true under all interpretations of that argument in which the premises are true. Since the validity of an argument depends on its form, an argument can be shown invalid by showing that its form is invalid. This can be done by a counter example of the same form of argument with premises that are true under a given interpretation, but a conclusion that is false under that interpretation.

In informal logic this is called a counter argument. The form of argument can be shown by the use of symbols. For each argument form, there is a corresponding statement form, called a corresponding conditionaland an argument form is valid if and only if its corresponding conditional is a logical truth.

A statement form which is logically true is also said to be a valid statement form. A statement form is a logical truth if it is true under all interpretations. A statement form can be shown to be a logical truth by either a showing that it is a tautology or b by means of a proof procedure. The corresponding conditional of a valid argument is a necessary truth true in all possible worlds and so the conclusion necessarily follows from the premises, or follows of logical necessity. The conclusion of a valid argument is not necessarily true, it depends on whether the premises are true.

If the conclusion, itself, is a necessary truth, it is without regard to the premises. In the above second to last case Some men are hawkers See also: Existential import. The forms of argument that render deductions valid are well-established, however some invalid arguments can also be persuasive depending on their construction inductive argumentsfor example.

La phenomenologie de l'esprit de Hegel et L'esthetique de la maturite

See also: Formal fallacy and Informal fallacy. Non-deductive logic is reasoning using arguments in which the premises support the conclusion but do not entail it.The 17 th Century English philosopher Thomas Hobbes is now widely regarded as one of a handful of truly great political philosophers, whose masterwork Leviathan rivals in significance the political writings of Plato, Aristotle, Locke, Rousseau, Kant, and Rawls.

He is infamous for having used the social contract method to arrive at the astonishing conclusion that we ought to submit to the authority of an absolute—undivided and unlimited—sovereign power. While his methodological innovation had a profound constructive impact on subsequent work in political philosophy, his substantive conclusions have served mostly as a foil for the development of more palatable philosophical positions.

Readers new to Hobbes should begin with Leviathanbeing sure to read Parts Three and Four, as well as the more familiar and often excerpted Parts One and Two. Hobbes sought to discover rational principles for the construction of a civil polity that would not be subject to destruction from within. Continued stability will require that they also refrain from the sorts of actions that might undermine such a regime. For example, subjects should not dispute the sovereign power and under no circumstances should they rebel.

In general, Hobbes aimed to demonstrate the reciprocal relationship between political obedience and peace. To establish these conclusions, Hobbes invites us to consider what life would be like in a state of nature, that is, a condition without government. Perhaps we would imagine that people might fare best in such a state, where each decides for herself how to act, and is judge, jury and executioner in her own case whenever disputes arise—and that at any rate, this state is the appropriate baseline against which to judge the justifiability of political arrangements.

He assumes that people are sufficiently similar in their mental and physical attributes that no one is invulnerable nor can expect to be able to dominate the others.

While people have local affections, their benevolence is limited, and they have a tendency to partiality. Concerned that others should agree with their own high opinions of themselves, people are sensitive to slights.

They are curious about the causes of events, and anxious about their futures; according to Hobbes, these characteristics incline people to adopt religious beliefs, although the content of those beliefs will differ depending upon the sort of religious education one has happened to receive.

Hobbes further assumes as a principle of practical rationality, that people should adopt what they see to be the necessary means to their most important ends. Taken together, these plausible descriptive and normative assumptions yield a state of nature potentially fraught with divisive struggle.

The right of each to all things invites serious conflict, especially if there is competition for resources, as there will surely be over at least scarce goods such as the most desirable lands, spouses, etc. People will quite naturally fear that others may citing the right of nature invade them, and may rationally plan to strike first as an anticipatory defense. Conflict will be further fueled by disagreement in religious views, in moral judgments, and over matters as mundane as what goods one actually needs, and what respect one properly merits.

In response to the natural question whether humanity ever was generally in any such state of nature, Hobbes gives three examples of putative states of nature. First, he notes that all sovereigns are in this state with respect to one another. Third and most significantly, Hobbes asserts that the state of nature will be easily recognized by those whose formerly peaceful states have collapsed into civil war.

The bonds of affection, sexual affinity, and friendship—as well as of clan membership and shared religious belief—may further decrease the accuracy of any purely individualistic model of the state of nature. Another important open question is that of what, exactly, it is about human beings that makes it the case supposing Hobbes is right that our communal life is prone to disaster when we are left to interact according only to our own individual judgments.

Perhaps, while people do wish to act for their own best long-term interest, they are shortsighted, and so indulge their current interests without properly considering the effects of their current behavior on their long-term interest. This would be a type of failure of rationality. Such an account would understand irrational human passions to be the source of conflict. Game theorists have been particularly active in these debates, experimenting with different models for the state of nature and the conflict it engenders.

Hobbes argues that the state of nature is a miserable state of war in which none of our important human ends are reliably realizable. Happily, human nature also provides resources to escape this miserable condition. Humans will recognize as imperatives the injunction to seek peace, and to do those things necessary to secure it, when they can do so safely. They forbid many familiar vices such as iniquity, cruelty, and ingratitude.

Although commentators do not agree on whether these laws should be regarded as mere precepts of prudence, or rather as divine commands, or moral imperatives of some other sort, all agree that Hobbes understands them to direct people to submit to political authority. The social covenant involves both the renunciation or transfer of right and the authorization of the sovereign power. Political legitimacy depends not on how a government came to power, but only on whether it can effectively protect those who have consented to obey it; political obligation ends when protection ceases.

Although Hobbes offered some mild pragmatic grounds for preferring monarchy to other forms of government, his main concern was to argue that effective government—whatever its form—must have absolute authority.Pierre Hadot, Philosophy as a Way of Life tr. Chase: "Philosophy, for ancient philosophers, was an "exercise.

It is a concrete attitude and determinate lifestyle, which engages the whole of existence. The philosophical act is not merely situated on the cognitive level, but on that of the self and of being. It is a progress which causes us to be more fully, and makes us better. It is a conversion which turns out entire life upside down, changing the life of the person who goes through it.

It raises the individual from an inauthentic condition of life, darkened by unconsciousness and harassed by worry, to an authentic state of life, in which he attains self-consciousness, an exact vision of the world, inner peace and freedom. Attention, a continuous vigilance and presence of mind, allows us to respond immediately to events In order for this to be possible, we must always have the fundamental principles "at hand.

The goal is to arrange our lives around a simple, universal principle. Finally, we come to the practical exercises, intended to create habits In this kind of exercise, one very simple principle is always recommended: begin practicing on easier things, so as gradually to acquire a stable, solid habit Philosophy was a way of life, philosophy was a mode of existing in the world, which had to be practiced at each instant, and the goal of which was to transform the whole of one's life.

Philosophy thus took on the form of an exercise of the thought, will, and totality of one's being.

Philosophy was a method of spiritual progress which demanded a radical conversion and transformation of the individual's way of being. Spiritual exercises have as their goal the transformation of our vision of the world, and the metamorphosis of out being In a unified coherent, and well-developed essay, elaborate an argument concerning spiritual exercises in the ancient world.

This essay should be well organized according to a well-reasoned thesis.

Hobbes’s Moral and Political Philosophy

You will argue for your thesis congruently and logically, elaborating your argument according to a clear structure. The short selection from Pierre Hadot are meant to assist your investigation of ancient spiritual exercises. In addition to these passages you should consider these questions: What is the substance of these exercises? That is, upon what part of themselves are these practitioners working?

Are they attempting to transform their reasoning faculty, control or eliminate their passions, or something else? Two, What are the means or methods of these exercises? What kinds of relationship do they have with these exercises? Do they enjoy them? Are they designed to conform one to some rule or law? If so, what kind of law?

La philosophie occulte, ou, La magie

To what extent is conformity absolutely necessary and to what extent is there room for personal initiative or creative individual response? Four, towards what end telos are these practices aimed? What kind of person is one trying to become?See what's new with book lending at the Internet Archive.

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The Medical Heritage Library. European Libraries.Judicial reviewpower of the courts of a country to examine the actions of the legislative, executive, and administrative arms of the government and to determine whether such actions are consistent with the constitution.


Actions judged inconsistent are declared unconstitutional and, therefore, null and void. The institution of judicial review in this sense depends upon the existence of a written constitution. When courts determine challenged administrative actions to be unreasonable or to involve abuses of discretion, those actions are declared null and void, as are actions that are judged inconsistent with constitutional requirements when courts exercise judicial review in the conventional or constitutional sense.

In such cases the court pronounces that a challenged rule or action could not have been intended by the legislature because it is inconsistent with some other laws or established legal principles.

Constitutional judicial review is usually considered to have begun with the assertion by John Marshallfourth chief justice of the United States —35in Marbury v. Madisonthat the Supreme Court of the United States had the power to invalidate legislation enacted by Congress. Constitutional judicial review exists in several forms. In countries that follow U.

In France judicial review must take place in the abstract i. In other countries e. Systems of constitutional judicial review also differ in the extent to which they allow courts to exercise it. For example, in the United States all courts have the power to entertain claims of unconstitutionality, but in some countries e. A number of the constitutions drafted in Europe and Asia after World War II incorporated judicial review in various forms. For example, in France, where the Cour de Cassation the highest court of criminal and civil appeal has no power of judicial review, a constitutional council Conseil Constitutionnel of mixed judicial-legislative character was established; Germany, Italy, and South Korea created special constitutional courts; and India, Japan, and Pakistan set up supreme courts to exercise judicial review in the manner generally used in the United States and in the British Commonwealth.

After World War II many countries felt strong pressure to adopt judicial review, a result of the influence of U. Some observers concluded that the concentration of government power in the executivesubstantially unchecked by other agencies of government, contributed to the rise of totalitarian regimes in Germany and Japan in the era between World War I and World War II.

Although judicial review had been relatively uncommon before World War II, by the early 21st century more than countries had specifically incorporated judicial review into their constitutions.

This number does not include the United States, whose constitution still includes no mention of the practice. Judicial review Article Media Additional Info. Print Cite. Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback External Websites. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login. External Websites. See Article History. Read More on This Topic. The first examples of written constitutions came from the United States.


The United States also gave the world an institution that has become Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: constitutional law: Judicial review.

The United States also gave the world an institution that has become a fundamental feature of many contemporary constitutional systems: judicial review. Rigid written constitutions allow for the existence of special state…. Judicial review of administration is, in a sense, the heart of administrative law.

It is certainly the most appropriate method of inquiring into the legal competence of a public authority. The aspects of an official decision or an administrative act that….

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philosophie this way review model

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